The Nordic countries have been joining forces in the Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership, SHHP, since 2006 with the purpose of deploying hydrogen fuel cell vehicles and constructing and clustering hydrogen refueling stations. Thanks to this, the region has distinguished itself as one of the earliest areas in the world where the latest hydrogen technology is demonstrated.
One of the advantages of hydrogen is that it can store energy from all sources, including renewable energy sources. Hydrogen as an energy carrier is a very flexible alternative. Therefore hydrogen will play a key role in the necessary transition from fossil fuels to a sustainable energy system.
And at the moment it seems like the transportation sector can use renewable energy produced hydrogen to replace fossil fuel – as the market experience roll outs of both refueling networks and transportation vehicles.
Electrolysis – where electricity splits water to hydrogen and oxygen, is a useful method for producing hydrogen from renewable energy sources like wind, solar and hydro power. In this way hydrogen can play a role to balance the grid.
As with other fuels and energy carriers, hydrogen must be handled with special requirements. Since hydrogen has been used in the industries for over a century, we have very good knowledge of how to deal with it in order to minimize the risk of incidents.
Modern batteries have less energy loss than fuel cells and will play an important role in future transport. But the disadvantages with batteries are that they demand long charging times and are quite heavy. The combination of fuel cells and batteries in vehicles has proven very beneficial. Supplemented with fuel cells, electric cars will dramatically increase range and the refuelling takes only a few minutes, but in the transportation sector you also would need a lot of power to move heavy cargos – that means a lot of battries in each vehicles, not a problem for long distance trucks.
Network of refueling stations
The Scandinavian hydrogen cooperation consists of regional clusters involving major and small industries, research institutions, and local, regional and national authorities – Showing a multitude of pathways for hydrogen supply using local resources. The national networking bodies – Norsk Hydrogenforum in Norway, Hydrogen Sweden in Sweden and Hydrogen Link in Denmark – act as coordinators.
The Scandinavian hydrogen cooperation has as it’s goal to create one of the first regions in Europe where hydrogen is available and used in a network of refuelling stations.
All activities are based on effective collaboration across the borders and are backed with strong public and private support in terms of funding, attractive financial tax exemption schemes and investments. The main goal is to create one of the first regions in Europe where hydrogen is available and used in a network of refuelling stations. The first step is to connect the largest city in Scandinavia in a network of refueling stations:
The challenge would be to move this network of refueling stations further north. The plan is to move the hydrogen corridor further north – step by step.
Hydrogen – a solution for the transportation sector
The EU-parliament passed the directive Clean Power for Transport in September 2014, which will secure the roll out of alternative fuels such as methane, hydrogen and electric charging infrastructure with common standards throughout the EU. Plans on a national level for fossil free energy systems are in place both in Sweden, Norway and Denmark – and all of the Scandinavian countries have ambitious goals for replacement of fossil fuels in the transportation sector.
The dependence of fossil fuels in the transport sector is the single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions in Scandinavia. To be able to lower carbon dioxide emission, the overall energy consumption needs to decrease and the use of renewable energy increase.
The Hydrogen value chain
The Scandinavian hydrogen cooperation will strive to build up knowledge of strategies for business models for development and operation of hydrogen infrastructure for vehicles, as well as for establishing production and distribution of hydrogen. In this situation it would be necessary to look closer into the hydrogen value chain: solutions within production, storage, distribution and use of hydrogen that meets the renewable society challenges.
The Scandinavian hydrogen cooperation wants to strengthen the use of hydrogen in the transportation sector – so that hydrogen could be a replacement for fossil fuels in the transportation sector in the future – also in the northern parts of Norway.