Advice Notes on Ground & Air Source Heat Pumps Technology Economics for the NPA Region

GSHP

The Advice Notes aim to provide introductory material for entrepreneurs, startups and SME’s, considering to enter into the renewable energy sphere and based in the NPA regions partners to GREBE. The scope of the Advice Note covers regional, trade and industry, renewable energy (RE), technology information from Ireland, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Iceland and Finland. Different partner regions have different level of deployment of the various RE technologies covered by the Advice Notes. Thus, the level of information will vary depending on the level of deployment for each technology. For example, wind is not deployed on a large scale in North Karelia (Finland); however, it is widely deployed in Scotland, Ireland and Northern Ireland.

Full details are available on the GREBE website:

http://grebeproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/GREBE-Advice-Notes-GSHP-ASHP.pdf

The focus of the Advice Notes is on regional information of some of the main economic characteristics sited as imperative, when making an informed choice, regarding which RE technology may be the optimal choice for a new business venture:

  • Costs and economics associated with the relevant technology
  • Support schemes available, relevant to the technology
  • Government allowance/exemptions, relevant to the technology
  • Funding available for capital costs of the relevant technology
  • List of the relevant to the technology suppliers/developers, with focus on local/regional, suppliers/developers and the products and services they offer.

Geothermal Map

Heat pumps offer a means to access and utilize the thermal energy that is contained naturally in air, water or the ground. Heat pumps extract low-grade energy from the surrounding environment (air, water, and ground) and transform it into usable energy at a higher temperature suitable for space and water heating. Any kind of heat pump will need to be powered by electricity. Thus, the coefficient of performance (COP), which is the amount of electricity input, is a very important factor when considering GSHP or ASHP. For example if it takes 1 unit of electricity input to produce 4 units of heat output, the CoP will be 4. One of the crucial factors for the CoP is the temperature required by the heating system as CoP is higher when the required temperature is lower (35- 45°C).

Therefore, heat pumps are appropriate for buildings that have these lower temperature heating systems. As these can be costly to retrofit, new buildings which are already fitted with low temperature heating are apt for heat pump technology. For a GSHP or ASHP system a minimum of CoP 3 is needed in order to be a viable option offering savings both in costs and C02 emissions.

The Advice Notes will cover Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) and Air Source Heat Pump (ASHP).

GSHP systems make use of the temperature difference between above-ground (air) temperatures and below-ground temperatures for heating or cooling. GSHPs take low-level heat from solar energy stored in the earth and convert it to high-grade heat by using an electrically driven or gas-powered heat pump containing a heat exchanger. A fluid, mixture of water and antifreeze, is circulated in a closed loop system, which picks up heat from the ground and then passes through the heat exchanger in the heat pump, which extracts the heat from the fluid. Heat pumps deliver heat most efficiently at about 30°C which is usually used to deliver space heating to buildings. GSHPs cover a wide range of capacities, from a few kW to hundreds of kW.

Air-source heat pumps (ASHPs) work on the same principle as GSHP, by taking low-grade thermal energy from the air (using an air-source collector outside of the building) and converting it to useful heat by means of the vapour compression cycle. ASHPs are in common use in commercial-scale heating, ventilation and AC systems as they can meet both heating and cooling demand. Installation of an ASHP includes fixing an external unit and drilling holes through the building wall with and an extra pipework may be required. The main steps for deciding if an ASHP is an apt choice are the same as those for a GSHP system, without the need for a ground survey.

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Advice Notes on Geothermal Economics for the NPA Region

Geothermal

The Advice Notes aim to provide introductory material for entrepreneurs, startups and SME’s, considering to enter into the renewable energy sphere and based in the NPA regions partners to GREBE. The scope of the Advice Note covers regional, trade and industry, renewable energy (RE), technology information from Ireland, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Iceland and Finland. Different partner regions have different level of deployment of the various RE technologies covered by the Advice Notes. Thus, the level of information will vary depending on the level of deployment for each technology. For example, wind is not deployed on a large scale in North Karelia (Finland); however, it is widely deployed in Scotland, Ireland and Northern Ireland.

Full details are available on the GREBE website:

http://grebeproject.eu/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/GREBE-Advice-Notes-Geothermal.pdf

The focus of the Advice Notes is on regional information of some of the main economic characteristics sited as imperative, when making an informed choice, regarding which RE technology may be the optimal choice for a new business venture:

  • Costs and economics associated with the relevant technology
  • Support schemes available, relevant to the technology
  • Government allowance/exemptions, relevant to the technology
  • Funding available for capital costs of the relevant technology
  • List of the relevant to the technology suppliers/developers, with focus on local/regional, suppliers/developers and the products and services they offer.

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It is understood that the ultimate source of geothermal energy is radioactive decay occurring deep within the earth. In most regions, this heat reaches the surface in a very diffuse state. Nevertheless, due to a range of geological processes, some areas, including substantial portions of the NPA region, are underlain by comparatively shallow geothermal resources.

However, Iceland is taking geothermal power and technology to an advanced level by exploiting the resource for power generation. Other countries in the NPA region are exploring options of exploiting the geothermal resources by the use of deep geothermal technology but are still far behind in comparison to Iceland.

Let’s get food from geothermal heat

ICI Blog
The idealists who got first and second place in the competition. First place: Rearing insects on geothermal energy – TULCIS – The insect Farm to feed the future by Torsten Ullrich and Christin Irma Schröder. Second place: Geothermal shrimp culturing by Magnús Þ. Bjarnason and Þorgerður Þorleifsdóttir

On June 13th 2018 Eimur introduced the 14 ideas submitted in their idea challenge on the utilization of low to medium enthalpy water resources in food processing. Eimur is a public-private partnership/cluster in the field of energy, increased utilization of geothermal resources and innovation in north Iceland.

The ideas were all around food processing and were all various, ambitious, innovative and with high possibility of growth so the judges had difficulties choosing between. The idea that won first place in the competition evolves around an innovative vision on utilization of insects. They want to develop a solution from variable resources, biomass, geothermal and fishing industry. Then they looked at the insects which are also a part of the nature. Therefore decrease the pressure on fishing industry with a new and growing industry, the insect culturing. The second place had vision around shrimp farming and more specifically geothermal water shrimp farming. Here below are some pictures of the winners.

In an interview with the general manager of Eimur, he described how difficult it was to choose between these 20 ideas. All of them were very well thought and professionally organized. He furthermore talked about the necessity of innovation around our pure natural resources in a rather low polluted environment and therefore create products with certain quality.

Source: https://www.eimur.is/is/frettir/skordyraraekt-bar-sigur-ur-bytum

€120billion geothermal project in Europe

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On 28th of January 2018 in Brussels at an EU steering committee meeting on energy technique of the future, SETPLAN, Guðni A. Jóhannesson general director of energy reported on a plan on deployment of geothermal heat for heating and electric production in Europe. Iceland is a member in SETPLAN cooperation on the grounds of EEA cooperation.

A workgroup under supervision of Guðni and other colleagues have been working on various topics e.g. technical matters, highlights and projects that need to be fulfilled under strict rules of the steering committee set in the beginning of the project. Matters that need to be covered are e.g. utilization of geothermal heat, improve the competitiveness and minimize costs regarding exclusive factors of geothermal heat production.

The SETPLAN committee approved the plan from the workgroup and to finance research and development projects within the geothermal fields with 940 billion euro. The financing comes from the partner countries, from EU funds and the industry. The first cooperation project has begun, GEOTHERMICA, and applications thereunder could lead to 60 billion euro projects. Orkustofnun (National Energy Authority) leads the project from Iceland; other partners are also RANNÍS (The Icelandic Centre for Research) which runs the application process. GEORG runs the office of the project and daily operations.

Source: https://orkustofnun.is/orkustofnun/frettir/nr/1912

Albert Albertsson was awarded the Order of the Falcon

ICI blog

Albert Albertsson was awarded the Order of the Falcon on New Year’s Day for his contribution to geothermal utilisation. The award ceremony took place at Bessastaðir which is the official residence of the President of Iceland. Albert has worked at HS Orka since 1977 and has been at the forefront of innovation and development at the company since the beginning. He has led the way in implementing this approach and the resulting work practices within HS Orka.

Albert is amongst other things the concept creator of the Resource Park, which is located near the HS Orka Power Plant in Reykjanes. The Resource Park is unique and encourages the further development and improved utilisation of the resources provided by power plants. The goal of the Resource Park is a ‘Society without waste’ where all the resource streams of the power plant are utilised in a responsible manner and for the benefit and development of society.

Albert has always placed a great emphasis on educating others and knowledge dissemination, not only in the diverse field of geothermal utilisation but also in the field of technology and environmental issues. Albert’s co- workers would like to congratulate him on this great achievement. The Icelandic Order of the Falcon is the highest honour that the Icelandic state can bestow on individuals, both from home and abroad. The order was founded by King Christian X on the 3rd of July, 1921 to award those who make a significant contribution to Iceland.

(source: https://www.hsorka.is/en/about-us/news/albert-albertsson-was-awarded-order-falcon/)

Scottish Government awards £2.6m to innovative local green energy solutions

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The Scottish Government has awarded 12 projects a total of £2.6m as part of its Low Carbon Infrastructure Transition Programme. The projects, among which are initiatives in Glencoe, Callander, Aviemore, Stromness and St Andrews, are tasked with developing local, green energy solutions.

Minister for Business, Innovation and Energy Paul Wheelhouse said:  “The Scottish Government has set some of the most ambitious carbon reduction targets on the planet – exceeding the requirements of the Paris agreement – and is making excellent progress towards meeting them.”

“We have also set our sights on eradicating fuel poverty – which is an unacceptable blight on too many households in Scotland in 2017 – as energy prices have risen steadily, at a time when wages have been depressed due to a weak UK economy and austerity. These twin challenges drive our ambition for innovative local energy projects, such as those for which we are today announcing £2.6 million of funding, as these will provide many consumers, including in some of Scotland’s most remote areas, with an alternative, greener, and potentially cheaper energy source. The construction and maintenance of these projects will also have the added benefit of creating and sustaining jobs, and in doing so can bolster local economies.”

A total of 10 projects received development funding to produce Investment Grade Business Cases, which received a share of £550,000, which will matched by project partners. Two other projects received capital support of £1.95 million, the largest being the Halo Kilmarnock Project. The HALO Kilmarnock development in the West of Scotland will feature a 2,000-metre deep geothermal well, from which hot water will be extracted using a small pump. It is due to be drilled in 2018. Scotland’s first deep geothermal district heating network has been allocated £1.8 million of grant funding by the government. This will involve a former bottling plant being converted into a low carbon development which will include hundreds of affordable homes.

Another project will be based around the low carbon heat provision at the University of the West of Scotland’s Ayr campus, energy efficient homes for older people in North Lanarkshire and an energy project in Glencoe Village.

Below is a table showing the projects, lead applicant, location, total cost and LCITP support received.

Table

Geothermal training education for developing countries in Iceland

ICI 18-10-2017

The Geothermal Training Programme of the United Nations University (UNU-GTP) is a postgraduate training program, aiming at assisting developing countries in capacity building within geothermal exploration and development. The program consists of six months annual training for practicing professionals from developing and transitional countries with significant geothermal potential. Priority is given to countries where geothermal development is under way, in order to maximize technology transfer.

The first official statement on establishing a UNU geothermal institute in Iceland was made in 1975 when the United Nations University (UNU) had just been established. After a first proposal in 1976 and an international workshop in 1978, the Government of Iceland decided in October 1978 to ask Orkustofnun (the National Energy Authority (NEA)), to sign an Agreement on Association with the UNU and establish the UNU Geothermal Training Programme (UNU-GTP). The UNU-GTP has been hosted by the NEA ever since.

The first annual training session of the UNU-GTP started in May 1979 with two UNU Fellows from the Philippines. Since then, a group of scientists and engineers from energy agencies and research organizations as well as universities in the developing countries and Central and Eastern European countries, have come to Iceland every spring to spend six months in highly specialized studies in geological exploration, borehole geology, geophysical exploration, borehole geophysics, reservoir engineering, chemistry of thermal fluids, environmental science, geothermal utilization, and drilling technology.

The development of geothermal resources requires a group of highly skilled specialists from a number of disciplines of science and engineering. Because of its diversity, geothermal energy has not been taught as a common subject at universities. The training of geothermal specialists has mainly taken place on-the-job within companies and institutions. International geothermal schools have contributed significantly in the transfer of geothermal technology, especially for the benefit of developing countries.

More recently, the UNU-GTP also offers a few successful candidates the possibility of extending their studies to MSc or PhD degrees in geothermal sciences or engineering in cooperation with the University of Iceland.

The UNU-GTP was established in the shadow of the oil crisis, when nations were looking for new and renewable energy sources in order to reduce dependence on hydrocarbons, in particular oil with its rapidly escalating prices. The current situation is somewhat similar in the sense that the international community is looking towards renewable energy sources as an alternative for the hydrocarbons in order to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases.

The UNU-GTP yearbook “Geothermal Training in Iceland 2016” has now been published on print and released online and is now available for download under publications on the webpage http://www.unugtp.is.

Source: http://www.unugtp.is and http://www.nea.is

Orkustofnun-ensk